To take care of special needs of Juanga People (PVTGs), a micro project called Juanga Development Agency ( JDA ) covering 6 G.Ps. and 35 villages of Panchayat Samiti, Banspal is functioning in this District with effect from Dt.07.10.1978 with special allocation from Govt. of India. The total geographical area of the Juanga Development Agency is 641.44 Sq.K.Ms. as per base line survey made during 2010 by this agency, the total population is 9046. out of which male population is 4471 and female population is 4575. The total literacy rate of Juang people is 38.18% . The male and female literacy rate is 46.31% and 30.05% respectively. Total nos. of house hold 2054. Sex ratio-1027 Females/1000 Males. They speak Juanga, a dialect of Munda language. They grow a variety of cereals and pulses in their swiddens. They live in unclean village settlement. In every village there is a youth dormitory-cum-community centre called Mandaghara/ Majang. They usually observe their festivals and marriage ceremony with Changu dance. In the evening coming back from the field the females remain busy in cooking and males member go to mandaghara for spending their leisure hours in gossiping and warming of their body. At the fire place it is worth mentioning that fire used to burn in mandaghara day & night throughout the year.
Juanga believe in supernatural power and it has a lot of bearing on their day today life. Gramasiri ,the village goddess is enshrined and symbolically represented by a wooden post and stones adjacent to mandaghara. The juang celebrate a lot of feasts and festivals which are directly or indirectly associated with hunting expedition. collection and gathering of jungle produces, eating of first harvested food crops and fruits of the season. Agricultural operation and life cycle rituals of the juangas are also linked with magico religious practices. However most of the rituals require sacrifice of animals and birds, Liquor, vermilion, Turmeric powder, wicks , Molasses, Sundried rice, Leaf cups and plates etc.
The art and craft. Dance and music. Enjoyment and merrymaking. Healths and happiness of community. Peaceful heavenly life and creative impulses and all that are most vital in life are all possible because of the values. virtues. discipline and purpose based management system of dormitory (Majang) life. The juang youth make excellent comb which they present to their beloveds .They were beautifully decorated their tobaco containers and traditional lighters. Intimacy develop during changu dance between two sweet hearts of opposite sex may lead to marriage provided there is no restriction of clan rules. The prescribed rules and regulations. Norms and values and dormitory are seriously obeyed by its members.
Juangas mainly marry to procreate and propagate the juanga population in the society. After marriage a juanga woman expects a child irrespective of gender bias. Both male and female children are welcome.
Family is the smallest social unit around which major social, religious and such other activities revolve round. Nuclear type of family is common and after marriage a son is expected to stay with his wife in a separate house. The family is patrilineal, patrilocal and patriarchal . Father is the head of family and his decisions relation to socio-economic matter within the family are final.The juanga are famous for their clans structure and kinship organisation. Each clan, locally knows as Bok,has a totemic origin and members of the clan are believed to have descended from a common-mythical or totemic ancestor. Basic characteristics of PTG (juanga) are addiction to wine, unplanned life style, adversity in manual work, exhibits adversity in changed profession. They live in uniclan village settlement of hill slopes. Malaria and waterborne diseases are their main health hazards.
In spite of panchayatiraj administration through out the country ,the juanga have yet retained their effective traditional political council. 'Pradhan' is the formal headman of the traditional political council, the post of which is not hereditary and any senior person having manoeuvring capacity can be selected by the villagers. The 'danguan' acts as an assistant to pradhan. Certain conflicts connected with two or more villages may be decided by calling upon inter village juanga council where the sardar plays a vital role and his judgement is final and unchallenged. No doubt vibrating impact of morden panachayatraj system has weakened the position of most powerful 'pirha sardar' .
DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE
Development and change are inevitable and the juangas are no exception in this context. The juangas, who live in complete isolation in early nineteenth century are in transition since last three decades. Under the impact of modernisation and acculturation they have brought immense change particularly in their adornment pattern, use of modern amenities and material culture. Hindu influence has also percolated deeper and their patron deities are losing their important. Juanga youths are found engaged in small business ,selling of fire wood in near by town, working as daily wage earners in the house of non tribal and MGNREGA .The emerging new leader behave and act like pseudo politicians in plains. Because of meagre harvest in slash and burn type of rotation cultivation (shifting cultivation,the Juangas have adopted modern techniques and use of high breed seeds as well as pesticides and fertilizer. During last four decades the realistic approaches for holistic development of the juangas through juanga development agency as well as ITDA, Keonjhar have brought in a lot of positive impact on development of education, irrigation, soil conservation, housing ,communication, health and sanitation etc. How ever our endeavour is going on to preserve their tradition and to see then economically developed simultaneously.
SOURCES OF INCOME